usama shahid

Cranfield University

Constructed wetlands (CWs), as a nature-based solution, has been used for river treatment, as well as delivering multi-benefits, such as biodiversity and carbon sequestration. In this study, three pilot scale hybrid CW systems including a vertical-flow (VF) CW and a free-water surface (FSW) CW as the first and second stage treatments, respectively, were built to treat the simulated heavy polluted river water.

Constructed wetlands as nature-based solutions for water and wastewater treatment